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Diversity is a perversity to be shed

Below is an article from our Affirmative Action Media Monitoring Project. These articles represent a wide variety of views. These views do not necessarily represent the views of AAPF but instead are intended to provide you with an overview of the current affirmative action debate. May 12, 2011

By Walter Williams

The terms “affirmative action,” “equal representation,” “preferential treatment” and “quotas” just don’t sell well. The intellectual elite and their media, government and corporate enthusiasts have come up with diversity, a seemingly benign term that’s a cover for racially discriminatory policy. They call for college campuses, corporate offices and government agencies to “look like America.”

Part of looking like America means if blacks are 13 percent of the population, they should be 13 percent of college students and professors, corporate managers and government employees. Behind this vision of justice is the silly notion that but for the fact of discrimination, we’d be distributed equally by race across incomes, education, occupations and other outcomes.

There is absolutely no evidence that statistical proportionality is the norm anywhere on Earth; however, much of our thinking, laws and public policy is based upon proportionality being the norm. Let’s look at some racial differences while thinking about their causes and possible remedies.

While 13 percent of our population, blacks are 80 percent of professional basketball players and 65 percent of professional football players and are the highest-paid players in both sports. By contrast, blacks are only 2 percent of the NHL’s professional ice hockey players. There is no racial diversity in basketball, football and ice hockey. They come nowhere close to “looking like America.”

Even in terms of sports achievement, racial diversity is absent. Four of the five highest career home-run hitters were black. Since blacks entered the major leagues, of the eight times more than 100 bases were stolen in a season, all were by blacks.

The U.S. Department of Justice recently ordered Dayton, Ohio’s police department to lower its written exam passing scores so as to have more blacks on its police force. What should Attorney General Eric Holder do about the lack of diversity in sports? Why don’t the intellectual elite protest? Could it be that the owners of these multibillion-dollar professional basketball, football and baseball teams are pro-black while those of the NHL and major industries are racists unwilling to put blacks in highly paid positions?

There’s one ethnic diversity issue completely swept under the rug. Jewish Americans are less than 3 percent of our population and only two-tenths of 1 percent of the world’s population. Yet between 1901 and 2010, Jews were 35 percent of America’s Nobel laureates and 22 percent of the world’s.

If the diversity gang sees underrepresentation as “probative” of racial discrimination, what do they propose we do about overrepresentation? Because if one race is overrepresented, it might mean they’re taking away what rightfully belongs to another race.

There are other representation issues to which we might give some attention with an eye to corrective public policy. Asians routinely get the highest scores on the math portion of the SAT, and blacks get the lowest. Men are 50 percent of the population, and so are women; yet men are struck by lightning six times as often as women. The population statistics for South Dakota, Iowa, Maine, Montana and Vermont show that not even 1 percent of their populations is black. On the other hand, in states such as Georgia, Alabama and Mississippi, blacks are overrepresented in terms of their percentages in the general population.

There are many international examples of disproportionality. For example, during the 1960s, the Chinese minority in Malaysia received more university degrees than the Malay majority — including 400 engineering degrees compared with four for the Malays, even though Malays dominate the country politically. In Brazil’s state of Sao Paulo, more than two-thirds of the potatoes and 90 percent of the tomatoes produced were produced by people of Japanese ancestry.

The bottom line is there no evidence anywhere that but for discrimination, people would be divided according to their percentages in the population in any activity.

“Diversity” is an elitist term used to give respectability to acts and policy that would otherwise be deemed as racism.

Posted on www.columbiatribune.com

Black economist says Cuba needs affirmative action

Below is an article from our Affirmative Action Media Monitoring Project. These articles represent a wide variety of views. These views do not necessarily represent the views of AAPF but instead are intended to provide you with an overview of the current affirmative action debate. May 12, 2011

By Juan Tamayo

Black Cubans, already with the worst jobs and lowest salaries, will need “affirmative action” as the government tries to slash its inflated payrolls, a black Havana economist and former Communist Party member wrote Wednesday.

Esteban Morales, 68, made it clear in his lengthy essay that he supports Cuba’s “extraordinarily humanist” revolution and believes it took great pains to outlaw racism and provide equal opportunities for blacks over the past 52 years.

An economist who has written previously on race, he also attacked black Cubans who criticize the revolution as racist, saying they have embraced a U.S. strategy for sparking a “political confrontation” that would change the island’s regime.

In unusually direct language, however, Morales also complains that blacks rank at the bottom of several economic measurements, that Cuban schools do not teach courses on race, and that government socio-economic statistics should be broken down by skin color.

He was “separated” from the Communist Party last year for a similarly harsh essay in which he warned that a burgeoning string of corruption scandals was a bigger threat to the country’s stability than “the counterrevolution.”

Morales’ latest essay essentially argues that questions about race must be a priority for the Raul Castro government as it tries to fix the stagnant economy by slashing state spending – on jobs and subsidies -- and allowing more private enterprise.

Blacks and mestizos “have always historically been the least qualified, the most disadvantaged in the workplace, with the worst jobs, the lowest salaries and the lowest retirement benefits,” Morales wrote in his 4,311-word essay, published in his eponymous blog.

Castro himself spoke of the need to increase the number of blacks and women in leadership positions during a speech last month to a Communist Party congress last month. The 2002 census shows 65 percent of Cubans identify themselves as white, and 35 percent as black or mestizo.

Morales went well beyond that, noting that fewer blacks than whites have relatives abroad who can send them cash remittances. He added that black Cubans in Florida also earn less – and therefore can send less to the island – because of U.S. racism.

Blacks and mestizos on the island also have a harder time finding well-paying jobs and tend to “take refuge … in illegal activities, prostitution and pimping, the illegal re-sale of products,” he noted. They make up 57 percent of the prison population, he added.

Morales’ essay notes that Cuba faces many challenges in race relations but adds that he would focus only on four, -- starting with the need to create an array of school courses on modern-day racism.

“How is it possible that in a multicolor nation like Cuba … there’s no scientific treatment of those problems” he wrote . University-level education is “especially plagued by prejudices on the racial issue, weak institutional attention to it, ignorance and even fear of studying it.”

Cuba’s National Statistics Office (ONE) should include racial breakdowns when it reports economic and social data such as unemployment, salaries, housing conditions, education levels and life expectancy, Morales noted in his second challenge.

In his third, he urged Cubans to demand equal racial representation in all fields, and in his last he urged Cuba to embrace “the so-called affirmative action” as a way “to balance out the different historical points of departure for the racial groups that today make up our society.”

Cuban government officials have long cringed at the possibility of using affirmative action on the island, arguing that it would explicity admit that the revolution had failed to eradicate race-based discrimination.

Morales’ harshest criticism went to Carlos Moore, a black exile who has attacked Cuba’s leadership as almost exclusively white and argued that blacks were denied the most visible jobs when Cuba opened its doors to foreign tourism in the 1990s.

Morales alleged that some of Moore’s publications were financed by groups that received CIA money. Moore, a black rights activist now living and teaching at a university in Brazil, could not be reached immediately for comment.

Posted on www.miamiherald.com

Diversity Perversity

Below is an article from our Affirmative Action Media Monitoring Project. These articles represent a wide variety of views. These views do not necessarily represent the views of AAPF but instead are intended to provide you with an overview of the current affirmative action debate. April 5, 2011

By Walter E. Williams

he terms affirmative action, equal representation, preferential treatment and quotas just don't sell well. The intellectual elite and their media, government and corporate enthusiasts have come up with diversity, a seemingly benign term that's a cover for racially discriminatory policy. They call for college campuses, corporate offices and government agencies to "look like America."

Part of looking like America means if blacks are 13 percent of the population, they should be 13 percent of college students and professors, corporate managers and government employees. Behind this vision of justice is the silly notion that but for the fact of discrimination, we'd be distributed equally by race across incomes, education, occupations and other outcomes. There is absolutely no evidence that statistical proportionality is the norm anywhere on Earth; however, much of our thinking, laws and public policy is based upon proportionality being the norm. Let's look at some racial differences whilst thinking about their causes and possible remedies.

While 13 percent of our population, blacks are 80 percent of professional basketball players and 65 percent of professional football players and are the highest paid players in both sports. By contrast, blacks are only 2 percent ofNHL's professional ice hockey players. There is no racial diversity in basketball, football and ice hockey. They come nowhere close to "looking like America."

Even in terms of sports achievement, racial diversity is absent. Four out of the five highest career home-run hitters were black. Since blacks entered the major leagues, of the eight times more than 100 bases were stolen in a season, all were by blacks.

The U.S. Department of Justice recently ordered Dayton, Ohio's police department to lower its written exam passing scores so as to have more blacks on its police force. What should Attorney General Eric Holder do about the lack of diversity in sports? Why don't the intellectual elite protest? Could it be that the owners of these multi-billion-dollar professional basketball, football and baseball teams are pro-black while those of the NHL and major industries are racists unwilling to put blacks in highly paid positions?

There's one ethnic diversity issue completely swept under the rug. Jewish Americans are less than 3 percent of our population and only two-tenths of 1 percent of the world's population. Yet between 1901 and 2010, Jews were 35 percent of American Nobel Laureate winners and 22 percent of the world's.

If the diversity gang sees underrepresentation as "probative" of racial discrimination, what do they propose we do about overrepresentation? Because if one race is overrepresented, it might mean they're taking away what rightfully belongs to another race.

There are other representation issues to which we might give some attention with an eye to corrective public policy. Asians routinely get the highest scores on the math portion of the SAT while blacks get the lowest. Men are 50 percent of the population and so are women; yet men are struck by lightning six times as often as women. The population statistics for South Dakota, Iowa, Maine, Montana and Vermont show that not even 1 percent of their populations is black. On the other hand, in states such as Georgia, Alabama and Mississippi, blacks are overrepresented in terms of their percentages in the general population.

There are many international examples of disproportionality. For example, during the 1960s, the Chinese minority in Malaysia received more university degrees than the Malay majority – including 400 engineering degrees compared with four for the Malays, even though Malays dominate the country politically. In Brazil's state of Sao Paulo, more than two-thirds of the potatoes and 90 percent of the tomatoes produced were produced by people of Japanese ancestry.

The bottom line is there no evidence anywhere that but for discrimination, people would be divided according to their percentages in the population in any activity. Diversity is an elitist term used to give respectability to acts and policy that would otherwise be deemed as racism.

Posted on www.lewrockwell.com

AAG in turmoil, Supa's Executive Resigns or Sacked by Chiyangwa

Below is an article from our Affirmative Action Media Monitoring Project. These articles represent a wide variety of views. These views do not necessarily represent the views of AAPF but instead are intended to provide you with an overview of the current affirmative action debate. April 4, 2011

The AAG national executive resigned after holding a meeting with the agenda to chart the future of the empowerment organisation after alleged unilateral appointments by the founding president and chairman of the AAG’s founders’ council, Mr. Phillip Chiyangwa.

Differences emerged in the AAG after Chiyangwa allegedly co-opted two individuals to the national executive, one of whom is former ZIFA CEO, Henrietta Rushwaya, without the approval of the national executive.

Emerging from the extra ordinary meeting of the national consultative committee, former AAG executive director, Dr. Davison Gomo confirmed that all the 8 committee members unanimously agreed to resign over the individualisation and personalisation of the empowerment organisation.

Dr. Gomo said the AAG’s council is now free to elect a new executive to replace the resigned group.

The former AAG executive had Supa Mandiwanzira as its president, three vice presidents, namely Sam Ncube, Themba Mliswa and Advocate Farai Mtamangira.

Last night, The Zimbabwe Mail reporter was trying to find out whether the excutive resigned or it was sacked by Chiyangwa.

Other members included secretary general Tafadzwa Musarara, Elifas Mashaba treasurer general, national committee member Chamu Chiwanza and the executive director Dr. Davison Gomo.

As President of AAG, Supa Mandiwanzira is well known for his xenophobic outburst demanding that all foreigners operating retail shops in the CBD of Harare should be evicted.

“The law is clear on this issue. We can not let foreigners to come all the way from China and come bake bread here. These are the areas which our people should take up, and as AAG were are going to push government to apply the law,” he said.

Chiyangwa said the AAG constitution grants him exclusive powers to appoint the presidium by virtue of being the founder president and chair-man.

He said he was the sole appointing authority and that no one could challenge the appointments within the AAG ranks.

He said the appointments of Ms Rushwaya as vice president responsible for international empowerment and corporate affairs and a businesswoman, Ms Jennifer Mhlanga as vice president for gender empowerment were legitimate and that it was the decision of the founders' council.

The business mogul said the constitution of AAG granted him exclusive powers to make presidential appointments and that no one had the power to reverse them.

Mr Chiyangwa communicated the appointments to the two women through letters dated March 21, 2011.

Earlier, media reports said the AAG leadership was opposed to the development and that they were not recognising Ms Rushwaya as one of the vice presidents.

Mr Chiyangwa said he was the sole appointing authority and that all the members had no option but to accept the founding council's new appointments.

He said the appointments were legitimate and that they were meant to promote gender balance in the organisation.

"I am the founding president and I am the sole appointing authority. Ms Rushwaya and Ms Mhlanga are the new vice presidents. I am the only one who makes presidential appointments and any dissenting voice, you are out of AAG. That is what the constitution says.

"AAG is male dominated and there was not even a single woman in the leadership," said Mr Chiyangwa.

He said the appointments were aimed at empowering women. “Mrs Mhlanga is a renowned businesswoman with interests in Chinhoyi, Gweru and Bulawayo a banker and marketing guru. She holds a Bachelor’s degree in Local Governance from the Midlands State University and a Diploma in Business Leadership from the Zimbabwe Open University. Chiyangwa himself is on record saying you don't need a University degree to be successful in business. Jennifer has held several posts in the AAG.

“Ms Rushwaya is a teacher, college lecturer, the first Zimbabwean woman football CEO, one of the two women football CEOs worldwide, a visionary leader who brought the Brazil football team to Zimbabwe in 2010. An intelligent empowered businesswoman, a miner, a farmer, a leader par excellence. (She is also) an advocate for women’s rights,” said Chiyangwa.

Posted on www.thezimbabwemail.com

AAG Names A Hit List Of Foreign Controlled Firms

Posted March 3, 2011 Harare, - The Affirmative Action Group (AAG), has targeted five firms including commercial banks which are foreign owned and are operating in Zimbabwe, showing their solidarity with 87-year-old President Robert Mugabe.

President Mugabe on Wednesday launched an anti-sanctions campaign at a rally in Harare on Wednesday. He has in the past threatened to take over any business enterprise that do not adhere to the country's indigenisation regulations forcing foreigners to cede their earnings to local who are supposed to have at least 51 percent ownership in the firms.

At the fired-up rally organised by Zanu (PF) youths to sign a petition calling for the removal of sanctions, the AAG held huge posters with the names of the targeted companies written in black print.

The list was titled "Hit List" which was written in red. Red normally stands for danger.

The companies that are supposed to be targeted include the South African-based insurance firm, Old Mutual Limited (Old Mutual), BHP Biliton (Private) Limited (BHP), Rio Tinto Limited (Rio), the mining giant, commercial banks, Standard Chartered Bank Zimbabwe Limited (Stanchart) which is controlled from London in the United Kingdom, and Barclays Bank Zimbabwe Limited (Barclays), also controlled from London.

Old Mutual Limited has a market capitalisation of US$94 964 645.94 on the Zimbabwe Stock Exchange (ZSE). Its share price currently stands at US$1.63.

BHP Billiton Limited is not listed on the ZSE, while Rio Zim has a market capitalisation of US$58 417 261.50 and a share price of US$2.02 on the bourse right now.

Standard Chartered Bank (Stanchart) is not listed on the ZSE, but the other targeted bank, Barclays has a market capitalisation of US$175 435 284.34 and a share price of US$7.50.

Stanchart is currently led by Washington Matsaire while Barclays Bank is led by George Guvamatanda.

Chairperson of the Anti-Sanctions Campaign and Petition, Vice President John Nkomo, said all parties in the inclusive government had agreed in the Global Political Agreement (GPA) that sanctions should be removed.

He said the campaign was a process and that there was "no limited number of signatures to be gathered".

The former ruling party Zanu (PF)'s Information Department outlined 10 reasons why Zimbabweans should sign the petition.

"Sanctions are an attack on our economy, our jobs, our search for total empowerment and they are an attack on our business, on workers and on consumers," they said in a statement.

"Sanctions are an attack on our land and our land rights. They aim to create conditions for the reversal of land reforms."

However in an exclusive interview, prominent economist, John Robertson, said: "Sanctions is just an excuse by Zanu (PF) for what they did to the economy which they have messed up."

"They (Zanu PF) are now using sanctions as an excuse to try and shift blame for what they have been doing since Independence in 1980 when they took over farms and put the economy in the mess that it is in right now.

"I sincerely believe the sanctions issue is just being used to try and shift blame."

A journalist who refused to be named said: "We had sanctions during the days on Ian Smith and so there is nothing really new about sanctions. In fact sanctions made Rhodesia stronger because we were able to do things on our own."

During the days of Rhodesia, under Prime Minister, Ian Smith, the country had a very vibrant economy which could export such items as tobacco, it even had its own motor vehicle, The Prefect. Rhodesia actually exported more tobacco than any other country excluding Brazil and China during its days of glory.

Posted on www.thezimbabemail.com

AAG Names A Hit List Of Foreign Controlled Firms

Posted March 3, 2011 Harare, - The Affirmative Action Group (AAG), has targeted five firms including commercial banks which are foreign owned and are operating in Zimbabwe, showing their solidarity with 87-year-old President Robert Mugabe.

President Mugabe on Wednesday launched an anti-sanctions campaign at a rally in Harare on Wednesday. He has in the past threatened to take over any business enterprise that do not adhere to the country's indigenisation regulations forcing foreigners to cede their earnings to local who are supposed to have at least 51 percent ownership in the firms.

At the fired-up rally organised by Zanu (PF) youths to sign a petition calling for the removal of sanctions, the AAG held huge posters with the names of the targeted companies written in black print.

The list was titled "Hit List" which was written in red. Red normally stands for danger.

The companies that are supposed to be targeted include the South African-based insurance firm, Old Mutual Limited (Old Mutual), BHP Biliton (Private) Limited (BHP), Rio Tinto Limited (Rio), the mining giant, commercial banks, Standard Chartered Bank Zimbabwe Limited (Stanchart) which is controlled from London in the United Kingdom, and Barclays Bank Zimbabwe Limited (Barclays), also controlled from London.

Old Mutual Limited has a market capitalisation of US$94 964 645.94 on the Zimbabwe Stock Exchange (ZSE). Its share price currently stands at US$1.63.

BHP Billiton Limited is not listed on the ZSE, while Rio Zim has a market capitalisation of US$58 417 261.50 and a share price of US$2.02 on the bourse right now.

Standard Chartered Bank (Stanchart) is not listed on the ZSE, but the other targeted bank, Barclays has a market capitalisation of US$175 435 284.34 and a share price of US$7.50.

Stanchart is currently led by Washington Matsaire while Barclays Bank is led by George Guvamatanda.

Chairperson of the Anti-Sanctions Campaign and Petition, Vice President John Nkomo, said all parties in the inclusive government had agreed in the Global Political Agreement (GPA) that sanctions should be removed.

He said the campaign was a process and that there was "no limited number of signatures to be gathered".

The former ruling party Zanu (PF)'s Information Department outlined 10 reasons why Zimbabweans should sign the petition.

"Sanctions are an attack on our economy, our jobs, our search for total empowerment and they are an attack on our business, on workers and on consumers," they said in a statement.

"Sanctions are an attack on our land and our land rights. They aim to create conditions for the reversal of land reforms."

However in an exclusive interview, prominent economist, John Robertson, said: "Sanctions is just an excuse by Zanu (PF) for what they did to the economy which they have messed up."

"They (Zanu PF) are now using sanctions as an excuse to try and shift blame for what they have been doing since Independence in 1980 when they took over farms and put the economy in the mess that it is in right now.

"I sincerely believe the sanctions issue is just being used to try and shift blame."

A journalist who refused to be named said: "We had sanctions during the days on Ian Smith and so there is nothing really new about sanctions. In fact sanctions made Rhodesia stronger because we were able to do things on our own."

During the days of Rhodesia, under Prime Minister, Ian Smith, the country had a very vibrant economy which could export such items as tobacco, it even had its own motor vehicle, The Prefect. Rhodesia actually exported more tobacco than any other country excluding Brazil and China during its days of glory.

Posted on www.thezimbabwemail.com

In Brazil, in one year, 250 LGBT murdered: a "homocausto"

Posted on January 12, 2011 By Paul Canning

A Brazilian LGBT organisation which has been documenting homophobic murders of LGBT people in that country says they have now hit a record number: one every day and a half.

Grupo Gay da Bahia (GGB), the oldest Brazilian gay group, documented 250 cases in 2010. The figure is part of their annual report - still being completed - that will be officially unveiled in March.

In an interview with Terra Magazine, founder of the GGB and 'dean of the homosexual movement in Brazil' ('decano do movimento homossexual brasileiro'), Luiz Mott, said that in 2009 there were 198, about 50 less than reported last year.

Speaking on Brazilian TV, Mott described what's happening as a "homocausto".

In the previous decade an LGBT person was killed, on average, every three days. In recent years, that average rose to a murder every day and a half. GGB says that between 1980 and 2009 at least 3,100 homosexuals were killed by hate crimes in the country.

This escalation reflects growing violence in Brazil, especially with regard to lethal crimes. But, in general, impunity is higher when the victim is gay, Mott said, because people do not want to get involved, to testify.

Mott emphasized that the figures compiled by the GGB, based on reports in the national press, do not reflect the real picture of violence against homosexuals in Brazil. That it is definitely much more extensive: "surely this number is much higher."

"In the National Plan for Human Rights (PNDH 2) there were 11 affirmative measures which, unfortunately, the [previous] Lula government did not implement. The first was the documentation, the implementation of systematic data collection on violence, murder of homosexuals. Official statistics of Brazilian hate crime should be undertaken by the Ministry of Justice, the Office of Human Rights and national states - not the GGB, with its limited resources, who has done this heroic work."

Even with underreporting, Brazil outperforms countries such as Mexico, which is the second place in the murders of gay men (average 35 cases per year) and the United States, third in the list (approximately 25 notices per year), according to Mott.

For Mott, the country is living with a contradiction in that it has "more than 150 gay parades, houses the largest association of lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) in Latin America," but at the same time, it is "the world leader in deaths from this population. Brazil has a death penalty, in practice, much more severe than those in most homophobic countries in the world."

"A homofobia cultural é forte no Brasil" - "cultural homophobia is strong in Brazil."

In November, we reported that a proposed hate crimes law to tackle killings of LGBT had provoked a massive backlash on social media, including direct incitements to violence.

The arrest of two Brazilian soldiers last year following the shooting of a 19-year-old gay man on the day of the Gay Pride celebration in Rio de Janeiro drew wide media attention in Brazil. Sao Paulo's Gay Pride attracts 3.3 million - the biggest in the world - but a group of upper middle-class teenagers went on an attacking spree, beating several men and yelling homophobic epithets after the parade. Four of them were minors, and were sent to a juvenile detention center, but they have already been released, since a judge determined that they "were not a danger to society." Though the victims' lawyers may pursue criminal charges against the aggressors, the Sao Paulo government only threatened fines (though these could potentially be quite high).

Amid the publicity surrounding the shooting in Rio, and about proposed hate crimes laws, MundoMais reported thousands of Twitterers expressing support for homophobic attacks on LGBT using the slogan "Homophobia? Yes!" (#homofobiasim, see English translation of tweets, some of which are explicitly pro-violence, pro-'corrective rape' of lesbians) or used the number of the proposed hate crimes law (yes=#PL122Sim, No=#PL122Nao).

Mott say that "there is a whole cultural and institutional homophobia that still exists and has, in evangelical churches and Catholic churches, the great manufacturing centers for such ideological weapons."

Despite the public support for LGBT rights of former President Luiz Inacio Lula da Silva over his eight-year rule, says Luiz, "the situation of LGBT people has worsened."

"There were years marked by many declarations and affirmative action through the program "Brazil without Homophobia, LGBT National Conference, the creation of the National LGBT. However, few proposals have left the paper. The important achievements, as the name for social travesty, are the result of one or two decades of militancy of the movement. In concrete terms, the situation worsened for gays, despite the party. Never so much blood was shed as a homosexual in the Lula government. The HIV infection has also increased. A dire situation. Despite all the good will, statements and programs, proposals and affirmative action, the life expectancy of homosexuals diminishes."

Mott criticizes what he calls "lack of political will":

"For more than a dozen laws in Congress, aimed at the homosexual citizenship. To enact such laws, it is necessary political will and pressure of the executive by the legislature. The bench Gospel and the National Conference of Bishops of Brazil (Catholic) are extremely homophobic and prevent the adoption of such proposals. Lula, unfortunately, lacked the courage and boldness to press his power base, so that these laws were adopted."

"In our view, there was malfeasance on the part of the Presidency for not having effected the 11 measures proposed by PNDH 2. The government, despite the best intentions, did not face the main need, which is the guarantee of life for homosexuals. There were estimates of practical measures, if implemented, certainly, we would have a more precise number of these homicides. There were proposals to tackle homophobia and lethal crimes."

*Posted on www.madikazemi.blogspot.com